Clarissa Harlowe "Clara" Barton was a pioneer American teacher, patent clerk, and humanitarian that founded who American Red Cross. During the Civil War she created an agency that obtained and distributed supplies to wounded soldiers. She also served as a field medic on the front lines for Union soldiers. She was appointed by Union General Benjamin Butler as the "lady in charge" of the hospitals at the front. Among her more harrowing experiences was an incident in which a bullet tore through the sleeve of her dress without striking her and killed a man to whom she was tending. She was known as the "Angel of the Battlefield." Barton achieved widespread recognition by delivering lectures around the country about her war experiences. She met Susan B. Anthony and began a long association with the woman's suffrage movement. She also became acquainted with Frederick Douglass and became an activist for black civil rights. In 1869, she got the idea for a global agency that would provide relief voluntarily on a neutral basis. She inaugurated a movement to gain recognition for the International Committee of the Red Cross by the United States government. When she began work on this project in 1873, most Americans thought the U.S. would never again face a calamity like the Civil War, but Barton finally succeeded during the administration of President Chester Arthur, using the argument that the new American Red Cross could respond to crises other than war.